Imipramine hydrochloride 75mg - How does Venlor XR work?

Venlor XR capsules mg works by specifically blocking the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline from the synapse, or gap between nerve cells across which chemical messages are sent to allow nerve cell to communicate with each other.

By preventing the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline by the first nerve cell pre-synaptic there is more neurotransmitter remaining for the receiving nerve cell post-synaptic , so that nerve cells can communicate with each other for longer which increases stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood changes, relieving symptoms of depression.

Treating anxiety with Venlor XR Venlor XR capsules mg contain venlafaxine which is an antidepressant belonging to the class of drugs known as Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors SNRIs , used to treat several anxiety-related conditions, including social anxiety disorder Social Phobia , panic disorder panic attacks and generalised anxiety disorder, where excessive anxiety causes constant and uncontrollable feelings of worry and distress, making you feel irritable, and have difficulty thinking and sleeping.

Other common symptoms associated with anxiety may include muscle tension, dry mouth, a lump in the throat, cold clammy hands, diarrhoea and nausea. One of the major causes of anxiety is thought to be an imbalance of neurotransmitters brain chemicals that allows nerve cells to communicate , particularly a lack of serotonin that controls mood and noradrenaline that is related to drive and motivation.

If there is a lack of serotonin, the brain cells involved in nerve pathways that control mood changes generate feelings of anxiety and panic instead of well-being, which is associated with high levels of serotonin. By preventing the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline by the first nerve cell pre-synaptic there is more neurotransmitter remaining for the receiving nerve cell post-synaptic , so that nerve cells can communicate with each other for longer which increases stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood changes, relieving symptoms of anxiety.

What are the side effects of Venlor XR? Venlor XR capsules 75mg are used to treat major depression and symptoms of depressive illness, including anxiety, loss of interest in usual activities, disturbed sleep, change in appetite, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and recurrent thoughts of suicide. Venlor XR capsules 75mg are also used to treat other mood disorders that affect daily activities and relationships with others including, social anxiety disorder Social Phobia , panic disorder panic attacks and generalised anxiety disorder.

How does Venlor XR work? Venlor XR capsules 75mg contain venlafaxine which is an antidepressant belonging to the class of drugs known as Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors SNRIs , but is structurally and chemically different to other antidepressants. Venlafaxine in Venlor XR capsules 75mg acts in the brain to correct the chemical imbalance caused by a lack of certain neurotransmitters brain chemical that allows nerve cells to communicate that is thought to be one of the major causes of depression and other mood disorders, particularly a lack of serotonin, which controls many body activities, including regulating mood.

Venlafaxine is a potent inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline, and also weakly inhibits dopamine reuptake, which means that it blocks the re-uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline from the synapse the gap between nerve cells across which chemical messages are sent from one nerve cell to another. If the re-uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline by the first nerve cell pre-synaptic is blocked, this means that there is more neurotransmitter remaining for the receiving nerve cell post-synaptic , which allows nerve cells to communicate with each other for longer.

The action of Venlor XR capsules 75mg helps relieve symptoms of depression and other mood disorders by increasing the amount of serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain, which in turn increases stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood. You might ask them to tell you if they think your depression or anxiety is getting worse, or if they are worried about changes in your behaviour. Check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking Imipramine tablets if you or your child if they are the patient: Taking other medicines Please tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or have recently taken any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding Imipramine tablets should not be taken during pregnancy or if breast-feeding. If Imipramine tablets are taken in the last 3 months the baby may be born with breathing difficulties, lethargy, colic, irritability, changes in blood pressure, tremors, spasm.

Imipramine tablets should be withdrawn at least 7 weeks before the expected delivery date. Driving and using machines Imipramine may impair your alertness or cause drowsiness or blurred vision, alcohol can make these symptoms worse. Make sure you are not affected before you drive or operate machinery. Blood tests Whilst taking Imipramine tablets your doctor will regularly monitor your blood cell levels or liver function.

Dental check ups As Imipramine tablets can cause problems with your teeth, it is advisable to have regular dental checks ups.

Sugar intolerance If you have been told you have an intolerance to some sugars, contact your doctor before taking this medicine, as it contains types of sugars called lactose or sucrose. If you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist. Observe for a minimum of 6 hours post-ingestion where: Antidotes None available Elimination techniques Dialysis and haemoperfusion are ineffective as means of promoting drug or metabolite elimination.

Investigations Following severe toxicity: Management controversies Gastric lavage is not recommended as the procedure may be associated with significant morbidity, and there is no evidence that it is of any greater benefit than activated charcoal used alone Bosse et al. If the procedure is used i.

However, it would not be expected from the large volume of distribution of the tricyclics that clinically significant increases in body clearance would result. Physostigmine salicylate is a short acting reversible cholinesterase inhibitor which has been used historically in the management of tricyclic overdoses to reverse coma and antimuscarinic effects.

The use of physostigmine is no longer recommended. The use of dopamine in the management of hypotension has been suggested, but the pressor effect of this indirect acting inotrope may be diminished in tricyclic overdosed patients due to depleted levels of noradrenaline Buchman et al.

The use of intravenous glucagon has been proposed in cases where hypotension is unresponsive to volume expansion and sodium bicarbonate administration, because of its positive inotropic effect and possible antiarrhythmic property. Its place in therapy has not been established Sener et al. There are a number of reports of severe arrhythmias or sudden death occurring up to 1 week after tricyclic overdose, but a review of the cases show that the patients had continuing toxicity, underlying disease or abnormalities Stern et al.

Several predictors of clinical severity in tricyclic overdoses have been suggested, including: Whilst none of these features in isolation are predictive of life-threatening toxicity, they may be helpful in assessing patient risk. A 26 year old woman was started on dothiepin 50 mg daily during the first trimester of pregnancy.

This was increased to 75 mg daily at about 16 weeks of gestation and subsequently reduced to 50 and 25 mg daily at 30 and 34 weeks respectively. At 37 weeks there had been little growth over the previous three weeks, the patients weight remaining the same.

The fetal heart rate was irregular with over beats per minute. An ultrasound scan showed a normally grown fetus with no evidence of cardiac failure. The dothiepin was stopped after a few days. The frequency and the duration of the tachyarrhythmias decreased and within four days no abnormalities of the fetal heart rate were detected. An month-old child weighing 9.

She was drowsy, had muscle twitching and a generalised convulsion. On admission to hospital one and a half hours later she was comatose and convulsing. Electrocardiography showed sinus tachycardia. Her convulsions were controlled with 10 mg IV diazepam and 4 ml IM paraldehyde. She was intubated and her stomach emptied. Cardiac massage and assisted ventilation were started.

She was unresponsive to IV atropine, and was given 5 mmol sodium bicarbonate and 50 ml plasma protein fraction. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxia with metabolic and respiratory acidosis.

Further sodium bicarbonate was given 30 mmol and hyperventilation started. Over the next few hours there was narrowing of the QRS complexes, some ST depression, and ventricular ectopic beats. She was responsive to pain ten hours after ingestion, and made an uneventful recovery Hodes Consequently the measurement of plasma drug concentration following overdose is not routinely advised, although it may have diagnostic value. Sample container Optimum storage Transport of samples Interpretation of data There is considerable variation in plasma concentration of dothiepin between individuals.

As a guide, it has been suggested that therapeutic effect is associated with plasma dothiepin concentrations in excess of 0. Forensic studies have found lethal tricyclic antidepressant levels ranging from 1. Relevant in vitro data Laboratory tests involving mammalian cells, human lymphocytes, and bacteria show no evidence of genotoxicity Dollery Tricyclic antidepressant plasma levels after augmentation with citalopram: Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; British National Formulary, Number Value of the QRS duration versus the serum drug level in predicting seizures and ventricular arrhythmias after an acute overdose of tricyclic antidepressants.

N Eng J Med ; Comparison of three methods of gut decontamination in tricyclic antidepressant overdose. J Emerg Med ; The use of vasoactive agents in the treatment of refractory hypotension seen in tricyclic antidepressant overdose. J Clin Psychopharmacol ; J Am Coll Emerg Phys ; 8: Demographic and electrocardiographic factors associated with severe tricyclic antidepressant toxicity. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol ; Poisoning due to tricyclic antidepressant overdosage:

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